In this seminar Dr Nemoto investigates the rapid increase of bills initiated by South Korea's National Assembly members. He argues that submitting a bill has become the act of sending a useful signal about an incumbent's personal quality in proposing "good public policy." The target of such a signal is not necessarily local voters, but rather general voters who value the National Assembly's collective lawmaking reputations for checking and balancing South Korea's "imperial presidency." To respond to citizens' increasing demands that the legislature be more functional and productive, parties agreed to adopt a series of institutional reform, while employing the very selective candidate selection process to screen out incumbents according to the records of their legislative performance. The result is intensified competition over bill initiation to win party nominations – now almost necessary, if not sufficient, conditions to win seats under the party-oriented electoral competition.