There was a large scale reform of education in the 1980s called the "Rinji Kyooiku Shingikai (aka Rinkyooshin) - National Council on Educational Reform" led by the cabinet, and strongly advocated and supported by Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone. It was the first major comprehensive reform on education since the major educational reform in the post-war period. There was another major comprehensive reform on education, "Rinji Kyooiku Kaigi - Extraordinary Commission on Education" in 1917-1919 in the Taishoo period, which was the first since the beginning of the Meiji period when the western educational system was introduced. These two major reforms are similar in many ways. In this seminar, the focus is on the National Council on Educational Reform which has paved the way for those who were born and brought up in the period when the Japanese economy was at its height and everything looked promising until the Bubble burst in the early 1990s. Another focal point of this seminar is the revision of the "Kyooiku Kihon-hoo - Fundamental Law of Education" in 2006. This was the first major reform of this law since the original law was introduced in 1947. What was the rationale behind the reform and what were the actual changes in the reform documents? A lively and candid exchange of opinions and interpretations is expected in the seminar.